16 - 18
Prepared for Can-Am Havurah
David B. Brooks (Adath Shalom Congregation -
This week the portion of The
Torah – the Parashah – that we read is Korakh. Most of the
action takes place in Chapter 16 of B’Midbar
(Numbers). It describes a rebellion in
the desert and the resulting divine retribution against the rebels. It is, for me, one of the most troubling of
the many stories that emerge from the 40-year period between
Let me set the stage. The Israelites have been moving across the
Sinai desert for some time now. They are
almost ready to cross the
I am not going to deal with
the Reubenite rebellion. Reuben was Jacob’s first born, and his
descendants had held a grievance since they lost the birthright – in effect,
hereditary leadership – to
The Levites challenged Moses
and Aaron because they felt sidelined in the priestly duties, which, in that
כהנים ממלכת לי תהיו ואתם (Shm
Later, in Parashat
Kedoshim, which is the middle chapter of the middle
book, Moses is told by God to instruct them:
“You shall be holy, for I, the Lord, your God, am holy”
אלקיכם ה׳ אני קדוש כי תהיו קדשים (Vyk 19:2).
There is no singling out of
any tribe or individual for special status.
This is the charge given to the Jewish people, the beginning of our
mandate to be a light to the nations.
It is entirely possible that Korakh is not serious about his questions. He would not be the first demagogue to use
populist arguments in a grab for power.
Almost all, rabbinic commentators condemn Korakh
for his leadership of the rebellion.
However, they cannot deny that the questions deserve an answer. Rabbi Plaut is one
of the few who argues that we should at least listen to Korakh,
for he raises “the eternal tension between authority
and freedom” (Chumash, p. 1133; see also note
15, p. 1750).
How does Moses answer Korakh? He does not
even try. He totally ignores the first
comment about the whole congregation being holy, and responds to the second by
saying that God will show that he, Moses, deserves the leadership. Indeed, he asks God not merely to wipe out
the rebels but to do so in a spectacular way so that it will be evident to
everyone that Moses leads with divine guidance.
God complies with Moses’s request, and after a
sort of trial by fire pans, the earth opens up and down go the rebels. Yet, as Rabbi Plaut
puts it, “The argument Korah (sic) presented
was not blotted out with the drastic divine response, . . .”
What is going on here? This is not the first rebellion in the
desert, though it appears to be the first about political leadership. Just a few weeks back, in Parashat B’Ha-alotkha God hears complaints about the lack of meat
and, with no back-and-forth at all, sends down “fire” – probably lightening –
and wipes out the complainers. Later in
the same Parashah, Moses tells God that he has had it
with leading the Israelites, and that he wants to die. He even makes what is for me the most chutzpadik remark in all of Torah when he question whether
even God can provide enough meat for the Israelites in the desert. Does God get angry? Not at all; God takes a parental approach and
advises Moses to build a Council of Elders to share his religious duties – a
parallel to the council Jethro had earlier advised to
share Moses’ administrative duties.
Still later, Miriam speaks out about Moses’ conduct, and, though God
does chastise her, it is rather mild. In
this case, without even listening to Korakh or
helping Moses frame an answer to the questions, God does away with the
rebels. As I said, What
is going on here?
Typically when one comes to
troubling issues in Torah study, the first place to go is the early Midrash – the collections known as, eg,
Genesis Rabbah (“Genesis R.”) or Sifre and Sifra. That approach will not help in this
case. Once the rabbis decided that
person A was good, they fill the Midrash with
examples and stories to mitigate any apparent errors; per contra, once
they decided that person B was bad, they fille the Midrash with stories and examples to make that person even
worse. It is a bit like old cowboy
movies where the good guys wear white hats and the bad guys wear black.
Korakh, according to the Midrash,
wore a great big black hat. The rabbis
conclude that he had been working behind the scenes for many years to overthrow
Moses and Aaron. What we read in The
Torah is only the culmination of a long-standing plot. Therefore,
the execution of Korakh and
company is not so troubling. God is
merely acting like an earthly ruler putting down a potential threat to
Authority (with a capital “A”). The
punishment for High Treason is death, which is exactly what the rebels get.
But something is still
troubling! There was nothing like a
trial, nor any response to that part of Korakh’s
challenge that is legitimate. Now, it is
a fundamental precept of Judaism that God is Just, but that we human beings may
not be sufficiently aware to understand Divine Justice. Most famously, we learn in Mishnah (Pirke Avot
Let me therefore offer two
suggestions of what we can learn from the alternating examples of justice and
mercy, or, in Rabbi Plaut’s terms, authority and
freedom. One suggestion involves
statecraft, but the other applies to each of us individually.
First, perhaps the story of Korakh teaches us that there are times when justice and authority must take
precedence over mercy and freedom. The baseline remains mercy and freedom, but,
when the political situation is fragile, constraints may be necessary. Even the most democratic nations typically
limit democratic rights in wartime to the greater good of national
defense. Certainly, it is a very
dangerous lesson, one that cannot be invoked too often and one that must always
be qualified in extent and limited in time.
Think of the Japanese sent to concentration camps in both the
may have asked good questions, but he did not ask them in a helpful way. Perhaps the second lesson is that there are
ways to ask and ways not to ask questions.
Unfortunately for him, Korakh posed his
questions in a way that divided rather than united people. If Korakh had put
his question forward in the Council of Elders, things might have been
different. As it was, we suspect that Korakh neither wanted nor expected an answer; he just
wanted a fight. Sometimes HOW we
do things is just as important, and possibly even more telling of our motives,
as WHAT we do.